THEME: The construction of the second Temple (1. 4,8,14). See also Ezra 4:24 - 5.1, 6.14.
MESSAGE: Haggai has the same message that Jeremiah 48:10, Matthew 6:33 and 1 Corinthians 15:58. The Jews had suffered materially due to their negligence in the service of the Lord; but the rebuilt temple would bring them great blessings and the Glory of the Lord would fill it.
ANALYSIS: The book is a series of FIVE MESSAGES on the part of Haggai, addressed to the governor Zerubbabel and to the same priest Joshua.
Chapter 1:1-11. Instead of uttering vain excuses, people should consider the sad results of their negligence and start already building the House of the Lord.
Chapter 1:12-15. The chiefs and people fearing God, Haggai encourages them to work, assuring them of God's presence.
Chapter 2.1-9. After a month of work, comes another message of encouragement. Some wept because that temple would be much inferior to the first (Ezra 3:12), but Haggai said that the "Desire of All Nations" would come to this new temple, bringing world peace (Hebrews 12.26-29), after having shaken the nations .
Chapter 2.10-19. After 3 months of work Haggai, using the symbolism of the Law in respect of "unclean" and "holy" things, shows the people the reason for lack of immediate blessing, but promises true divine blessing "from that day ".
Chapter 2:20-23. On the same day comes the fifth message, prophesying the destruction of the power of nations (Armageddon) and the establishment of the power of the Messiah (the Millennium). Note: Zerubbabel was of the lineage of David, from whom would come the Messiah (Matthew 1:12 and Luke 3:27).
The prophet Haggai was a contemporary of Zechariah (Haggai 1.1, Zechariah 1.1; Ezra 5:1-2; 6.14). The details of life are unknown, except that he lived in Jerusalem at the time of King Darius Hystaspes, of Persia. The five prophecies of his book were given in the 2nd year of this king - that is, in 520 BC (See Haggai 1.1, 1.15, 2.1, 2.10, 2.20).
The book of Ezra shows how the Jewish people, returning from captivity at the time of Cyrus (2 Chronicles 36.22-23, Ezra 1:1-4), soon raised the altar and laid the foundation of the temple. However there came difficulties and opposition, and the work was stopped for about 16 years. After this period, and removal of the difficulties, the people did not return to work on the temple and suffered a series of material calamities (Haggai 1.6, 9-11; 2:15-17). Then the prophet Haggai spoke.
The translation of 2.7 might be "desired things" of nations (ie, their wealth), or "the Desired of the nations" (ie the Messiah). This second interpretation seems to be indicated by the quotation in Hebrews 12.26-29.